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And in their efforts to describe a largely imaginary chaos, they employed an overwrought and repetitious pairing of opposites. Their principal rhetorical device was the reversal of a situation into its opposite: what was great has become small j the high has been laid low; the slaves have become mastersj the masters are slavelj the riverbed is dry; the dry land is under waterj and so on. These con- ceptual cliches, for which exact parallels exist in other literatures, have unfortunately often been taken for indicators of revolutionary upheavals.

There is, however, no historical evidence whatever to warrant the conclusion that at one time or another a social revolution took place in ancient Egypt. Warfare at the time of a king's death appears to have been common. But at no time was the hierarchic order of the society abrogated or endangered. Eventually, the literary working of the theme "order versus chaos" spent itself.

It had no sequel in the literature of the New Kingdom. Egypt's high regard for the art of using words, a valuation of rhetoric comparable to that which was to prevail in Greece and Rome, found conscious expression in the composition known as the Eloqumt Peasant. Here the art of fine speaking was made to serve the defense of justice. To the Egyptians eloquence came from straight thinking.

It was left to the Greeks to discover that rhetoric could also promote an unworthy cause. In its display of fine speech this work, more than any other, made extensive and successful use of metaphors and other poetic imagery.

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Hymns to the gods, close relations to the biblical psalms, appear on stone and on papyrus; and hymns to the king are elaborated into artfully constructed poems. Brief snatches of song sung to the accompaniment of a harp grow into poetic works, some of which once again give expression to the reflective and troubled moods which inform so much Middle Kingdom literature.

In lamenting the passing of life they sound a note of skepti- cism which was to become a continuous, if subdued, melody. All Egyptian narratives have an effective directness. They sketch a situation by a few strokes; there is no description for the sake of description. But there is a liking for the mixing of styles, a technique that culminates in the Story of Si"uhe, where the narration is interspersed with three poems and with an exchange of correspondence.

Each poem is an example of a genre: the encomium of the king, the personal lyric, and the sacral song. The stylistic richness and refinement of Si"uhe cannot be adequately reproduced in translation. But the story's extraordinary vividness, its ability to convey the moods and feelings of its hero, and the excellence of its overall construction, can still fascinate. It is the crown jewel of Middle Kingdom literature. Egyptian literature employs three styles. Prose, poetry, and a style that stands midway between the two. The hallmark of all prose is the linear forward movement of thought by means of variously structured lIentences which, because they are deliberately varied, prevent the I'mergence of a regular sentence rhythm and of a predictable form.

The intermediate style, on the other hand, is characterized by sym- metrically structured sentences. It was employed exclusively in direct "pcech. Hence I call it "symmetrically structured speech," or, the "urational style. In Egyptian as in biblical literature, the principal device that lu'livates the orational style is the pa,alklism of mmmns. Poetry defies a single definition.

Yet most I'I'Clple recognize it when they see it. In formal structure Egyptian Iltll'try was sometimes indistinguishable from the orational style. A major device ".. There the repetition occurs in alternate lines; hence the poem consists of distichs. In the poems that conclude the Dispute between a Man and His Ba, the stanzas formed by repetition of lines are tristichs.

The orational style, and all forms of Egyptian poetry, point to a system of metrics which consisted in the accentuation of units of meaning-words, groups of words, and sentences. Whether the metrics entailed a fixed number of stresses in any given line is not known; and efforts to solve this question are stymied, just as they are in the study of biblical metrics, by the absence of all visible indications.

But what can be clearly seen in Egyptian, and in biblical, poetic, and orational works is the metrical line as a whole and the principles by which it was constituted.


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The unit of a line was a unit of meaning, be it a whole sentence or a part of a sentence sufficiently self-contained to allow a pause before and after it. Whether in translations two clauses are gathered into a single line with a caesura, or are printed as two lines, is immaterial as long as the pauses can be observed. In Egyptian and in biblical literature, the metrical line is made apparent through parallelism of members and through more specialized devices, such as the repetition of one line or part of a line.

Given the fact that biblical and Egyptian poetry operated with units of meaning, and given the overwhelming importance of parallelism and other devices making for symmetry, there can be no doubt that the metrical line was always an end-stopped line. Enjambment could not occur. Egyptian grammar is synthetic, expressions are compact, and sentences are short.

Analytic English grammar requires more words and builds longer sentences. Thus, in order to come within hailing distance of the Egyptian, it is necessary to pare the English sentences to the bone and to shun all paraphrastic additions.

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When this principle is adopted, and when the rule that all Egyptian metrical lines are end-stopped lines is observed, it is possible to translate Egyptian literary works with some degree of accuracy, that is to say, to imitatl' the Egyptian lines by comparable English lines. The resulting rhythms will roughly approximate the rhythmic beat of the original texts, even though we cannot know what particular methods of accentuation, or cantilation, the Egyptians may have employed when they read, chanted, or sang the dancing words.

Monumental Inscriptions from Private Tombs The six texts in this section illustrate the principal themes in the reper- toire of tomb inscriptions. The texts in the mastaba of princess Ni-sedjer-kai are limited to prayers for offerings and for a good reception in the West, the land of the dead. The official Hetep-her-akhet sounds the theme that in building his tomb he chose an empty spot and did not damage another man's tomb. He also addresses a warning to future generations of visitors not to enter the tomb with evil intentions.

Moving into the time of the Sixth Dynasty, we sample the declaration of innocence of Nefer-seshem-,e, which embodies the principal elements in the catalogue of virtues which was being elaborated in this period. Ni-hebsed-Pepi has summarized his prayers for offerings and for a good reception in the West in the capsuled, self-contained form of the stela which, now still a part of the tomb, was destined to become an independent monument. Lastly, the two long inscriptions of Weni and Ha,khuf are the two most important autobiographical inscriptions of Old Kingdom officials and show the growth of the autobiography into a major literary genre.

They are carved on two architraves, two false-doors, and on the two pillars of the pillared hall. The relief figure of the princess, shown standing or seated at the offering table, concludes the texts. The two principal in- scriptions are on the two architraves. The two inscriptions: Ibid. May she travel on the good ways on which II revered one travels well. On the architrave over the entrance to the inner chamber Four lines; I An offering which the king gives and Anubis, first of the god's hall: May she be buried in the western necropolis in great old age before the great god.

Behind the text columns is the standing relief figure of the tomb-owner. Publication; Mariette, Mastabas, p. Holwerda-Boeser, Be- schreibung, I, pI. Sethe, Urkllnden, I, SO Mastaba of Hetep-her-akhti. Right side of entrance Four columns: J The elder Judge of the Hall, Hetep-her-akhet, says: I made this tomb on the west side in a pure place, in which there was no z tomb of anyone, in order to protect the possession of one who has gone to his ka.

As for any people who would enter 3 this tomb unclean and do something evil to it, there will be judgment against them 4 by the great god. I made this tomb because I was honored by the king, who brought me a sarcophagus. In addition, it came to be used for brief autobiographical statements, especially those which affirmed the deceased's moral worth. These affirmations became in- creasingly formulaic, and the limited space of the false-door lent itself to capsuled formulations. The stylization of these catalogs of virtues also meant that they were not told in the prose of the narrative autobiography, but were recited in the symmetrically patterned phrases of the orational style.

Publication: Capart, Rue de Tombeaux, pI. Sethe, Urkunden, I, Thr text is written twice, in three columns on each side of the door, and ends with a short horizontal line containing the deceased's name whose relief figure stands below it: I I have come from my town, I have descended from my nome, I have done justice for its lord, I have satisfied him with what he loves.

I spoke truly, I did right, I spoke fairly, I repeated fairly, I seized the right moment, So as to stand well with people. I gave bread to the hungry, clothes to the naked , I brought the boatless to land. I buried him who had no son, I made a boat for him who lacked one. I respected my father, I pleased my mother. I raised their children.

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So says he 4 whose nickname is Sheshi. On the left, facing right, are the Btanding figures of the deceased and his wife. Publication: Fischer, Inscriptions, no. I An offering which the king gives and Anubis, who is upon his mountain and in the place of embalming, the lord of the necropolis. May the Western Desert give her hands to him in peace, in peace before the great god. The structure may have been a cenotaph rather than a tomb. The text consists of fifty-one vertical columns of finely carved hieroglyphs, preceded by one horizontal line which contains a prayer for offerings.

Since some scholars include the first line in their numbering while others omit it, I have given double numbers. The stone has suffered considerable damage, resulting in a number of lacunae. Weni's exceptionally long career spanned the reigns of Teti, Pepi I, and Mernere.

Publication: Mariette, Abydos, II, pis. Tresson, L'in- scription d'Ouni, Bibliotheque d'ctude, 8 Cairo, Borchardt, Denkmiiler, I, ff. Wilson in ANET, pp.

Additional references may be found in the works of Tresson and Borchardt. While my office was that of his majesty made me senior warden of Nekhen, his heart being filled with me beyond any other :Icrvant of his. Never before had the like Iwen done for any servant-but I was excellent in his majesty's heart; I was rooted in his majesty's heart; his majesty's heart was filled wilh me. While I was senior warden of Nekhen, his majesty made me a ,,"! I acted for his majesty's 1" aise in guarding, escorting the king, and attending.

Whcn there was a secret charge in the royal harem against Queen Wnl't-yamtes, his majesty made me go in to hear it alone. Only I put it in writing together w,ll,. HIe other senior warden of Nekhen, while my rank was only that "I "Vl'rseer of rroyal tenants'. Never before had one like me heard.

When his majesty took action against the Asiatic Sand-dwellers, 1. I determined the number of these troops. It had never been determined by any servant. This army returned in safety, It had flattened the sand-dwellers' land. This army returned in safety, It had sacked its strongholds. This army returned in safety, It had cut down its figs, its vines, This army returned in safety, It had thrown fire in all its [mansions]. This army returned in safety, It had slain its troops by many ten-thousands. This army returned in safety, [It had carried] off many [troops] as captives.

His majesty praised me for it beyond anything. His majesty sent me to lead this army five times, to attack the land of the Sand-dwellers as often as they rebelled, with these troops. I acted so that his majesty praised me [for it beyond anything]. I made a landing in the back of the height of the mountain range, to the north of the land of the Sand-dwellers, while half of this army was on the road. I came and caught them all and slew every maraud 'I' among them. Never before had this office been held by any servant.

I did every task. I counted everything that is countable for the residence in this Upper Egypt two times, and every service Ihat is countable for the residence in this Upper Egypt two times. Never before had the like hcen done in this Upper Egypt. I acted throughout so that his majesty praised me for it. I traveled north with them to IIIC' pyramid "Mernere-appears-in-splendor" in six barges and three tow-boats of eight ribs in a single expedition. Never had Yebu and Ihllat been done H in a single expedition under any king. Thus l'vl'rything his majesty commanded was done entirely as his majesty IOlllmanded.

I brought this altar down for him in seventeen days. I did it all in one year. Floated, they were loaded with very large granite blocks for the pyramid "Mernere-appears- in-splendor. As King Mernere who lives forever is august, exalted, and mighty more than any god, so everything came about in accordance with the ordinance commanded by his ka.

The count, true governor of Upper Egypt, honored by Osiris, Weni. Three ceremonial functions; the second is literally "making the king's way. Grdseloff, ASAE, 51 , The title Iml-r 'uI has been much discussed and variously rendered: "caravan-leader," Faulkner, Diet. Three unknown geographical terms; it is not clear whether Weni is leading "from" or "to" these places. It is also not clear just where these campaigns against the "Asiatic Sand-dwellers" took place. In RWilta degli studi orientali, 38 , , Goedicke has proposed to locate the campaigns in the eastern Delta rather than in Sinai and Palestine.

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For this passage I have adopted the rendering of Edel. Kadish, JEA, 52 19b6 , 24 ff. The location of "Gazelle's-head" is unknown. Apparently Weni means that the office had never been held by a commoner. It It is not clear what is meant by havin8 counted everything twice; in ,EA, 31 , IS, Gardiner surmised that Weni "squeezed out of the unfortunate inhabitants of Upper Egypt twice as much in the way of taxes and work as his predecesaors.

It But other and more charitable interpretations are possible, for instance that he was in office long enough to be responsible for tax-collecting on two successive occasions. Each royal pyramid had ita own name and could be referred to in personal terms as a divinity. To "do" a distant place is an Egyptian idiom comparable with our "doing" a foreign country.

Cut in a soft, flaking stone, the inscription is now in very poor condition. In this capacity he led four expeditions to Nubia. His account of these expeditions is the most important source for Egypt's relations with Nubia at this time. To the account of his expeditions Harkhuf added the text of a letter he received from the boy-king Neferkare Pepi II in which the latter vividly and touchingly expresses his eagerness to see the dancing pygmy whom Harkhuf was bringing back with him.

The narration of his career ia preceded by the standardized elements of tomb-autobiography-the prayers for offerings and for a good burial, and the catalog of virtues. Publication: E. Sethe, Urlamden, I, Study and partial translation: E. Edel in Agyptologische Studi"" pp. Dixon, JEA, 44 , ; E. An offering which the king gives and Osiris, lord of Busiris: May hl"j urney in peace on the holy ways of the West, journeying on them a. CIne honored. May he ascend to the god, lord of heaven, 8S one hllllured by [the god, lord of heaven].

An offering which the king gives, to provide for him in the necrop- olis; and may he be transfigured! I have come here from my city, I have descended from my nome; I have built a house, set up its doors, I have dug a pool, planted sycamores. The king praised me, My father made a will for me. I was one worthy One beloved of his father, Praised by his mother, Whom all his brothers loved. I am an excellent equipped spirit akh , A lector-priest who knows his speech. As for any man who enters this tomb unclean, I shall seize him by the neck like a bird, He will be judged for it by the great godl I was one who spoke fairly, who repeated what was liked, I never spoke evilly against any man to his superior, For I wished to stand well with the great god.

Never did I judge between two [contenders] In a manner which deprived a son of his father's legacy. The Royal Seal-bearer, Sole Companion, Lector-priest, Chief of scouts, who brings the produce of all foreign lands to his lord, who brings gifts to the Royal Ornament,2 Governor of all mountain- lands belonging to the southern region, who casts the dread of Horus into the foreign lands, who does what his lord praises; the Royal Seal-bearer, Sole Companion, Lector-priest, Chief of scouts, honored hy Sokar, Harkhuf, says: The majesty of Mernere, my lord, sent me together with my father, the sole companion and lector-priest, Iri, to Yam, to open 3 the way to that country.

His majesty sent me a second time alone. I went up on the Yebu wad and came down via Mekher, Terers, and Irtjetj which are in I rljet in the space of eight months. I came down bringing gifts from Ihat country in great quantity, the likes of which had never before IIITn brought back to this land. I have not found it done by any companion and chief of scouts who went to Yam 10 previously.

Then his majesty sent me a third time to Yam. I went up from Ih ' nome of This upon the Oasis road. I found that the ruler of Y11m had gone off to Tjemeh-Iand, to smite the Tjemeh to the western mrner of heaven. I came down with three hundred donkeys laden with incense, ebony, bknfD-oil, nt, 5 pan- ther skins, e1ephant's-tusks, throw sticks, and all sorts of good products. Now when the ruler of Injet, Setju, and Wawat saw how strong and numerous the troop from Yam was which came down with me to the residence together with the army that had been sent with me, this ruler escorted me, gave me cattle and goats, and led me on the mountain paths of Irtjet-because of the excellence of the vigilance I had employed beyond that of any companion and chief of scouts who had been sent to Yam before.

Now when this servant fared down to the residence, the sole companion and master of the cool-rooms, Khuni, was sent to meet me with ships laden with date wine, cake, bread, and beer. On the jar right TWl! Notice has been taken of this dispatch of yours which you made for the King at the Palace, to let one know that you have come down in safety from Yam with the army that was with you. You have said in this dispatch of yours that you have brought 5 all kinds of great and beautiful gifts, which Hathor mistress of lmaau has given to the ka of King Neferkare, who lives forever.

You have said in this dispatch of yours that you have brought a pygmy of the god's dances from the land of the horizon-dwellers,' like the pygmy whom the god's seal-bearer Bawerded brought from Punt in the time of King Isesi. You have said to my majesty that his like has never been brought by anyone who did Yam previously. Truly you spend day and night planning to do what your lord loves. His majesty will provide your many worthy honors for the benefit of your son's son for all time, so that all peoph' will say, when they hear what my majesty did for you: "Does anything equal what was done for the sole companion Harkhuf when he came down from Yam, on account of the vigilance he showed in doinM what his lord loved.

Hurry and bring with you this pygmy whom you brought from the land of the horizon-dwellers live, hale, and healthy, for the dances of the god, to gladden the heart, to delight the heart of King Neferkare who lives foreverl When he goes down with you into the ship, get worthy men to be around him on deck, lest he fall into the water! When he lies down at night, get worthy 20 men to lie around him in his tent. Inspect ten times at night! My majesty desires to see this pygmy more than the gifts of the mine-Iand 7 and of Puntl S When you arrive at the residence and this pygmy is with you live, hale, and healthy, my majesty will do great things for you, more than was done for the god's seal-bearer Bawerded in the time of King Isesi, in accordance with my majesty's wish to see this pygmy.

A reference to the ritual by which the deceased was made an akh, a term usually rendered "spirit," "transfigured spirit," or "effective spirit. Apparently a reference to the queen, although the title is used more generally for honored ladies. On the implications of Harkhuf's exploratory journeys and on the Incation of the land of Yam consult especially the studies by Edel cited uhove. Restored in accordance with Edel in Agyptoiogische Studien, pp.

S4 ff. The term "horizon-dwellers" was a loose and vague designation of fnreign peoples to the east and southeast of Egypt. The term was studied hy C. The "mine-land" was a name for Sinai. The often discussed location of Punt has been studied anew by n. Agyptologische Reihe, 6 Cairo, I A considerable number of such charters, carved on slabs, were found in this temple.

The king's mother stands behind him. Below the scene is the inscription in nine lines. Publication: Weill, DieTels royaux, pp. Goedicke, Konigliche Dokumente, pp. I First jubilee of Merire, given life, duration, and dominion; may he live like Re. My majesty has commanded the exemption of this chapel [and what belongs to it] 5 in serfs and large and small cattle. There is no] claim [whatever against it]. As to any commis- sioner who shall travel south on any mission, my majesty does not permit him 7 to charge any travel expenses to the chapel.

Nor does my majesty permit to supply the royal retinue. For my majesty has commanded the exemption of this chapel. From The Pyramid Texts The Pyramid Texts are carved on the walls of the sarcophagus chambers and adjoining rooms and corridors that together form the royal burial suites inside the pyramids of Saqqara. Taken together they constitute a corpus of incantations, the purpose of which is to promote the resurrection and well-being of the deceased kings. As carved on the walls, the incantations are clearly separated from one another by means of an introductory term and by dividing lines.


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Thus they form distinct, self-contained "utterances. This stock was reused, though not in its entirety, in the pyramids of the subsequent kings, with new utterances added. Kurt Sethe's standard edition of the Pyramid Texts comprises a total of distinct utterances; ond the additional texts, discovered after the completion of his edition, bring the total to In assigning fixed numbers to the individual utterances Sethe, and MRspero before him, began the numbering in the sarcophagus chambers lind ended in the outermost corridors.

Some scholars think that the reverse urder of numbering, beginning with the corridors and ending in the! The problem whether a logical order IIf some kind existed is a complex one which requires much additional Atudy. In each case the translation presents the original version IIf the text without regard to the later parallel versions of the same spells, which may contain variations.

That is to say, "Unas Texts" are drawn from the Unas pyramid, and their reuse in the later pyramids is ignored, IIIIlI Teti and Pepi I texts are drawn from their respective pyramids in the f"rms in which they first appeared. The sample is of course too. For example, the famous "Cannibal Hymn" of the Unas pyramid Utterance was reused in the pyramid of Teti but not thereafter, a clear indication that this very primitive text was not suited to the thinking of later generations.

The central theme and purpose of the Pyramid Texts is the resurrection of the dead king and his ascent to the sky. The principal stages of his dramatic conquest of eternal life are: the awakening in the tomb from the sleep of death; the ascent to the sky; and the admission to the company of the immortal gods. These stages are envisioned with a variety of detail, and joined to them are ancillary themes. Thus numerous texts are concer- ned with purification and with the offering of food and drink, and the texts of this type were originally recited by the priests during the several stages of the king's burial and in the subsequent funerary cult performed at the pyramid.

Other texts, such as the spells against snakes, come from the sphere of daily life. Yet others are primarily speculative and concerned with envisioning the realm of the gods. The utterances vary greatly in length. By and large, the short ones are unified and consistent, while the long ones tend to be repetitious and diffuse. This also means that the compositions most successful as poetry will be found among the shorter texts. All Pyramid Texts are composed in the "orational style," a recitative that depends for its effects on a strong regular rhythm. Here and there, when suffused with feeling and imagina- tion, the incantations attain the heightened intensity which is the universal hallmark of poetry.

Publication: Sethe, Pyramidentexte. Translation and commentary: Sethe, OberseU:1mg. Mercer, Pyramid Texts. Faulkner, Pyramid Texts. May you rise in lightland. Osiris, Isis, go proclaim to Lower Egypt's gods And their spirits: "This Unas comes, a spirit indestructible, Like the morning star above Hapy, Whom the water-spirits worship; Whom he wishes to live will live, Whom he wishes to die will die! Your son comes to you, this Unas comes to you, May you cross the sky united in the dark, May you rise in lightland, the place in which you shine!

Thoth, go proclaim to the gods of the west And their spirits: "This Unas comes, a spirit indestructible, Decked above the neck as Anubis, Lord of the western height, He will count hearts, he will claim hearts, Whom he wishes to live will live, Whom he wishes to die will die! The utterance consists of four parts in each of which the king announ- ces his arrival in the sky to the sun-god and commands certain gods, Bciated with the four cardinal points, to broadcast his coming to the four sides of the universe. The symmetry of the composition is heightened by repetitions and relieved by variations.

The word rendered "spirit" and "spirits" is aM in the singular and plural forms. The text recalls the cardinal event with which Egyptian dynutic history begins: the victory of the South over the North which preceded the unification of the land. The event is symbolically represented u the victory of the white crown of Upper Egypt over the red crown of Lower Egypt.

Because Lower Egypt wu also represented by the Cobra goddess Wadjet, the text could be used as a spell against snakes. The very brevity of the phrasing-in Egyptian the whole text consists of ten words-is characteristic of sorcerer's spells. The meaning seems to be that the resurrected king haa left his earthly affairs in good order: he baa provided a proper burial for his father and baa installed his son as king. His ba. In JNES, 25 , 15J, Faulkner discussed the identification of the king with certain stars, and he suggested that the "Lone Star" is Venus aa seen just after sunset.

As a star, the king will be able to look down on Osiris who rules the dead in the netherworld, and he will not share their fate.

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This is one text in which Osiris is viewed as confined to the netherworld, while in many Inter Pyramid Texts Osiris baa been given a place in the sky. Nut, take his handl Shu, lift him up! Shu, lift him upl! Just as the sun-god Re takes a daily purifying morning bath in the Field of Rushes, located in the eastern sky, 80 will the king bathe there in the company of the sun-god.

The king's ascent to the sky is imagined in a nriety of ways. Here it is Shu, the god of air, who is asked to lift him uP. He subjects to himself those who have gone there, They bring him those four elder spirits, The chiefs of the sidelock wearers, Who stand on the eastern side of the sky Leaning on their staffs, That they may tell this Unas's good name to Re, Announce this Unas to Nehebkau,1 and greet the entry of this U nas.

Flooded are the Fields of Rushes That Unas may cross on the Winding Water:' Ferried is this Unas to the eastern side of lightland, Ferried is this Unas to the eastern side of sky, His sister is Sothis,t his offspring the dawn. The Winding Water is a frequently mentioned feature of the celestial tupography. The BOddess who personified the dog-star, Siriua. She wu frequently identified with Isis. Iinas has come to his side as a god comes to his side, 1, nas has come to his shore as a god comes to his shore.

This is one of several "ferryman" texts in which the king asks the I "Inriul ferryman to ferry him across the body of water that separated Ih IY from the earth. The ferryman is called "he who looks backward". The king has done no wrong to man, bird, or beast. This affirmation of innocence shows that the king's admittance to the sky required not only power and persuasion but moral purity as well.

Thoth in his appearance as ibis will transport the king. The alternation between pleading and threatening is characteristic of the Pyramid Texts as it is of all magic and sorcery. Utterances A. Vnas is the bull of heaven Who rages in his heart, Who lives on the being of every god, Who eats their entrails When they come, their bodies full of magic From the Isle of Flame.

Unas is he who eats men, feeds on gods, Master of messengers who sends instructions: It is Horn-grasper rin Kehau' who lassoes them for Unas, It is Serpent Raised-head who guards, who holds them for him, It is He-upon-the-willows who binds them for him. It is Shesmu 8 who carves them up for Unas, Cooks meals of them for him in his dinner-pots. Unas eats their magic, swallows their spirits: Their big ones are for his morning meal, Their middle ones for his evening meal, Their little ones for his night meal, And the oldest males and females for his fuel.

The Great Ones in the northern sky light him fire For the kettles' contents with the old ones' thighs, For the sky-dwellers serve Unas, And the pots are scraped for him with their women's legs. He has encompassed the two skies, He has circled the two shores; Unas is the great power that overpowers the powers, Unas is the divine hawk, the great hawk of hawks, Whom he finds on his way he devours whole.

Vnas's place is before all the nobles in Iightland, Vnas is god, oldest of the old, Thousands serve him, hundreds offer to him, Great-Power rank was given him by Orion, father of gods. Vnas has risen again in heaven, He is crowned as lord of lightland. The dignities of Unas will not be taken from him, For he has swallowed the knowledge of every god; Unas's lifetime is forever, his limit is eternity In his dignity of "If-he-likes-he-does if-he-hates-he-does-not," As he dwells in lightland for all eternity.

Lo, their power is in Unas's belly, Their spirits are before Unas as broth of the gods, Cooked for Unas from their bones. Lo, their power is with Unas, Their shadows are taken from their owners, For Unas is of those who risen is risen, lasting lasts. Not can evildoers harm Unas's chosen seat Among the living in this land for all eternity! Faulkner, Pyramid Texts, p. His k1'l1l and lzmwst, the male and female personifications of faculties. The Isle of Flame is an often mentioned part of the celestial topog- raphy.

It was studied by H. Kees in zAS, 78 , An obscure passage which has been variously rendered; see Faulkner, op. Three divinities will catch and bind the king's victims: a "grasper of horns," a serpent, and lzry lTWt, whom Sethe rendered as "he who is over the reddening," i. This demon only binds the victims, however, the slaughter being subsequently done by Khans.

Hence I take lJ'TlJt to be the word for "willows," and "he upon the willows" to be the demon who binds the victims with willow branches. After Khans has slain the gods, Shesmu, the god of the oil and wint' press, cooks them. Sethe, Kommentar, II, , interpreted Ibsw as the coil that protruded from the red crown.

The bull questions the king. Perhaps the royal residence is meant. The Field's reply to the king's greeting. The meaning of fRJ;fi is unknown; the sense of "steward" or "secre- IlIry" seems indicated. The modest role that the king assumes in this speD conflicts radically wilh the cannibalistic bluster of Utterance z West WaU Tire king appears as tire crocodile-god Sobk Unas has come today from the overRowing Rood, Unas is Sobk, green-plumed, wakeful, alert, The fierce who came forth from shank and tail of the Great Radiant one, 1 Unas has come to his streams In the land of the great Rowing flood, To the seat of contentment Which lies, green-pastured, in lightland, That Unas may bring greenness to the Great Eye in the field.

Unas takes his seat in lightland, Unas arises as Sobk, son of Neith; Unas eats with his mouth, Uoas spends water, spends seed with his phallus; U nas is lord of seed who takes wives from their husbands, Whenever Unas wishes, as his heart urges. The mother ofSobk is Neith. Frequently associated with the primordial floodwaters. The ritual of mourning which accompanies the king's ascent to the sky is alluded to in terms recalling the mourning over the. Utterance Sarcophagus Chamber, East Wall The king prays to the sky-goddess a great strider Who sows greenstone, malachite, turquoise-stars!

When entrance into the sky had become the central goal of the royal funerary cult, the sky-goddess Nut, mother of gods, became the protecting mother of the dead. The prayers addressed to her are suffused with feeling and are among the finest creations of Egyptian religious poetry. The splendid image of the sky-goddess sowing stars-whose light was thought of as green-joined to the image of the green plant as the symbol of life, makes this brief prayer a poetic gem. Rise up, a Tetil Take your head, Collect your bones, Gather your limbs, :;hake the earth from your flesh I Take your bread that rots not, Your beer that sours not, Stand at the gates that bar the common people I The gatekeeper comes out to you, lie grasps your hand, Takes you into heaven, to your father Geb.

The hidden ones worship you, The great ones surround you, The watchers wait on you. Barley is threshed for you, Emmer is reaped for you, Your monthly feasts are made with it, Your half-month feasts are made with it, As ordered done for you by Geb, your father, Rise up. Utterance Antechamber, East Wall The king prays for abundance o you whose c3b-tree greens on his field, o Blossom-opener on his sycamore, o you of gleaming shores upon his i"u-tree, o lord of verdant fields: rejoice today! Henceforth Teti is among you, Teti will go in your midst, Teti will live on what you live!

East Wall The king prays to the sun-god Hail. IJJ n.

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In his nightly journey. Yam is a region of the night sky. The lrYw or filiw were interpreted hy Sethe as gods who carry the sky ibid. J04 , and by Faulkner.. Re will purify Teti, Re will guard Teti from all evil! The ritual of the "opening of the mouth" has restored the king', physical and mental powers, 90 that he can function as judge and ruler in the beyond. By ornamenting the ceiling of the sarcophagus chamber with stau, the chamber was made to represent the night sky; and the prayers addre9llr.

A wordplay on 'n! J, "life," and m'n! Jt, a word for "staff. Another wordplay, with! Jsl, "to repel, prevent, bar," and! The ka has made its way into the sky ahead of the king and will announce his coming. The term "two enneads" stands for "all the gods. The complex term dw;rt or d,t embraced the concepti of dawn, dusk, and netherworld. Both "dawn" and "dusk" seem suitable here. The nbwt were thought to be the islands of the Aegean Sea, an int!!

The ellhaustive stull, by J. Yet in this context the narrower meanilill "islands" appears suitable. Vasilis Politis. Generic Enrichment in Vergil and Horace. Pope, Homer, and Manliness. Carolyn D. The Alexiad of Anna Komnene. Penelope Buckley. Rethinking the Gods. Peter van Nuffelen. A Handbook to the Reception of Ovid. John F. Sin and Filth in Medieval Culture. Martha Bayless. Baby Professor. Interpretations of Greek Mythology Routledge Revivals.

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