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  1. E844: Language and literacy in a changing world
  2. E Language and literacy in a changing world: View as single page
  3. Learning outcomes
  4. Language And Development Of Language

Language eng. Extent 1 online resource xv, p. Isbn Label Kids talk : strategic language use in later childhood Title Kids talk Title remainder strategic language use in later childhood Statement of responsibility edited by Susan M. Label Kids talk : strategic language use in later childhood, edited by Susan M.

Form of item online Governing access note Access restricted to subscribing institutions Isbn Isbn Type cloth : alk. Library Locations Map Details. Bowdoin College Library Borrow it. Library Links. Staff Services News and Events. Embed Experimental. Layout options: Carousel Grid List Card. Include data citation:. Copy to clipboard Close.

Cite Data - Experimental. Structured data from the Bibframe namespace is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4. Knowing a word involves knowing something of its core. In the case of digestion , the core meaning is the process by which. But few words are unidimensional in meaning or use, so knowing a. Knowing a word requires. Vocabulary instruction could be more effective if teachers understood how.

For children growing up in English-speaking families, rapid English. Vocabulary acquisition happens most easily in context and related to topics. For second-language learners, it is perhaps most valuable to stage. Thus talk about mothers and. Some understanding of how translations can. Whether they are practitioners or researchers, educators who work or. Standard dialects are considered more prestigious. Vernacular dialects are as regular as standard dialects and as useful.

These facts about normal language variation are not widely known, as.

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This idea was. It was the focus of talk shows on radio and television. It was. Senate held special hearings. Why was it controversial? As Lisa. My answer must be neither. I can be neither for Ebonics nor against. Ebonics any more than I can be for or against air.

It exists. It is the. It is the language through. On the other. Standard English. In the stratified society in which we live, they are. Schools must provide children who speak vernacular varieties of. English the support they need to master the English required for academic. The process. This is. A recognition of how language. How do dialect differences affect language learning and literacy. Even if practitioners have enough knowledge to keep.

Knowledge of the natural course of language acquisition and of the capacity. What is academic English? Although there is a lot of discussion. Standard English skills. To the extent that this matter is examined at all,. However, academic English entails a broad range of language.

We must ask what linguistic proficiencies are required for. Is academic language proficiency just a matter of. Cummins b, has described. It relies on broad knowledge of. A recent study of prototype test items for a high school graduation. The language used in this test was the language ordinarily used in.

To pass this test, students have to be able to do the following:. Summarize texts, using linguistic cues to interpret and infer the. Extract meaning from texts and relate it to other ideas and. Evaluate evidence and arguments presented in texts and critique the. Recognize and analyze textual conventions used in various genres. Recognize ungrammatical and infelicitous usage in written language. Use grammatical devices for combining sentences into concise and. Compose and write an extended, reasoned text that is well developed.

Interpret word problems—recognizing that in such texts, ordinary. Extract precise information from a written text and devise an. Production and understanding of academic English is an issue for. English language learners and for native speakers of English alike. Possible exceptions are the children of. For the most part, however, academic English. Written texts are a.

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Teachers provide the help that. What do teachers have to know and do to provide such instructional. They need to know something about how language figures in. This is especially true for English language learners. Often explicit teaching. Teachers must recognize that a focus on language—no matter what subject. They must engage children in classroom. And they must know enough about language to discuss it and. Academic language is learned. Why has the acquisition of English by non-English-speaking.

It appears that non-. English-speaking students may be having a harder and harder time learning. Although it used to take them from five to seven years to learn. English Cummins a; Klesmer, , recent studies suggest it is now. There are students who begin school in kindergarten classified by their. Even highly motivated students can have. The public, the press, and many. California, with its current 1. Department of Education, , has the highest concentration of such.

One out of every four students is classified as LEP. In ,. Many people who voted for this initiative believed. English Fillmore, in press. However, there is no evidence to support that. Several studies e. English-only programs 7 to 10 years. It is often assumed that students who do not learn English rapidly or.

These students do not thrive. A close look at these students. There are as many non-Spanish. Spanish speakers. Many are Asians who have been in English-only classes. Many of these students no longer speak. These students are highly motivated to learn English, and some, in fact,. However, once they are there, it soon becomes clear that their English.

Robin Scarcella, who directs the English as a Second. Language Program at the Irvine campus of the University of California,. These were students who had. Placement English courses. Nevertheless, their English writing indicated. What was the problem? It appears that these students and others like them who entered school. They languish academically, and many drop out of school or are. Whether or not LEP students manage to survive in school, few can. But for many years, teachers.

Over the past two. Instead teachers. They should use pictures, gestures, demonstrations and the like to. Are these approaches effective? Examining how children acquire. English in a variety of settings, Fillmore ; found that certain. They must interact. During interactions with. English learners, expert speakers not only provide access to the language at. Learners receive corrective feedback as they negotiate and. The acquisition. When there is no direct instruction in such situations, children can.

They are no longer language. Ti-Sang had said that she does not. Khmer and they do not speak English. Asked about her cousins who had. But when. If you ask. At age 12, Ti-Sang had been in English-only classes for eight years,. Educators must know enough about language learning and language. Written language is not merely oral language written down. Here we discuss questions about written. Why is English spelling so complicated? Since the first sound in. Why are there so many peculiar spellings among.

How can OO spell. These and other peculiarities of English spelling reflect two facts about. Unlike French, Spanish, Dutch, and many other languages, English. English generally retains the spelling of morphological units, even. English—an orthography in which the match of sound and spelling is. This is not to say that English. However, some. It is helpful to consider the wide array of writing systems that exist in. Some languages, such. Others, such as the Japanese katakana system,. Both of these systems morphemic and syllabic. Representing sounds alphabetically is fairly straightforward in languages.

English, though, like. Danish and German to some extent, often ignores phoneme identity to. For example, in English the. Compare the spelling and. Similarly, the root. The fact that the spelling electric is retained in all related word forms. Similarly, there.

For the same reason, it is probably good that we use the same letter. Other aspects of English spelling are less helpful. For example, GH in. Such spellings signal etymological. English also tends to. Such patterns. Some understanding of such complexities in English orthography can.

Teachers should know about the sound system of English and. Some languages with alphabetic. Some languages,. Other languages represent. Japanese is one of these. Knowing how. English spelling for learners, and why students make certain types of errors. Understanding that there can be substantial differences in how symbols are.

Spanish, Vietnamese, French, etc. The relationship between sounds and symbols can be relatively. Knowledge about language is crucial in helping teachers do a better job. Children may encounter. Second language learners are particularly likely to find. An additional problem arises when teachers who do not understand the.

E844: Language and literacy in a changing world

These individuals are far less qualified. Even more problematic, teachers may. It takes a solid understanding of language to teach reading effectively,. Teachers cannot make the learning of English orthography. Why do students have trouble with structuring narrative and.

All students need to learn the rhetorical structures. However, some students bring to this task culturally based text. The emphasis in. This emphasis can seem so obviously right to an uninformed. Different cultures. Similarly with expository writing, argument structures vary. There is no best way to make a point:. Different ways make sense in different cultures. The topic sentences,. Understanding the absence of some of these. How should one judge the quality and correctness of a piece of.

Educators must have a solid enough knowledge of grammar to. English grammar used to be taught. Such instruction was. Hence, we. Nor can teachers make use of this information to pinpoint the. Every teacher ought to know enough about the structure. Partly because teachers feel insecure about their own knowledge of. We have discussed above the problems encountered by many students. Few had any idea that they could not write in grammatically or stylistically. It was shocking for those who had been honor students. This state of affairs is not confined to UC Irvine or to students learning.

Across the 22 campuses of the California State University System,. The failure. Students who. Observations in high school English classes verify that many students. The following essay was written by a high school freshman for an honors. English class.

E Language and literacy in a changing world: View as single page

The assignment was to write an essay about the metaphoric. Wrath means very angry, very angry to somebody. It may happen on. First of all, I made this comparison because it is the good way to show. In my heart. Something is about the teacher; something is. But I almost forget it,. Does this student have any reason to think.

To provide the kind of feedback. English structure, discuss structural features of written language with their. What makes a sentence or a text easy or difficult to. Many educators associate simple, short sentences with ease in. For that reason, texts that are prepared and. The result is. Gebhard, Do greatly simplified materials help or hurt.

Examination of texts that had been modified according to. These texts. The following text exemplifies the modifications found in simplified. In May Parliament passed a law. It was called the Tea Act. George wanted to help the British East India Company. The East India. Company had 17 million pounds 7. It was stored in English warehouses. American colonists. The tea was taxed two times. It was taxed in. Then it was taxed again in the colonies.

The East India Company sent 1, chests of tea to the colonies. They did not like the tax. They did not. Many people thought the king wanted to crush the. The Boston Tea Party. The ships filled with tea sailed into Boston Harbor on November The colonists were angry. They would not let the tea be brought. It had to stay on the ships. On December 16, some. At night, they boarded. They dumped the tea chests into the harbor. The tea was.

The people called this the Boston Tea Party. Text simplification is achieved by restricting the number of words used. This text contains just words, distributed among 25 sentences, including. The average number of words per sentence for this text is 7. When texts are prepared with tight constraints on length, that. The end result is that such texts are not only.

Because simplified texts are often unnatural, they cannot serve as. Well-written texts with grade-level. Learning to understand and. Teachers and school administrators play a nontrivial role in. Because textbook publishers can. In the process of designing a. Educators need to. To do that, they need to know enough about language to assess. Courses Teachers Need to Take. Although we are not proposing any specific curriculum for teacher.

Language and Linguistics. This course would provide an introduction to linguistics motivated by. We envision a. Language and Linguistics course for educators as different in focus from an. Each area of linguistic study. For example, the study of phonology could begin with an examination of. English sound system. It might include investigation of topics such as why.

Language and Cultural Diversity. This course would focus on cultural contrasts in language use,. It would address such questions as. This course would also examine different types of. A sociolinguistic course for educators would focus on language. It would also. Language Development. This course would introduce issues in language development, with a. Second Language Learning and Teaching. Focusing on theoretical and practical knowledge about how second. The course would address the. The Language of Academic Discourse.

This course would focus on the language used in teaching and. A course like this would examine how language structures and style in. It would guide teachers in deciding. Special attention in. We have sketched here the reasons that educators need to know about. This proposal may strike some readers as utopian. Nonetheless, we are energized by the current political situation surrounding. The substance of these debates gives striking. Griffin, We must now take steps to provide this preparation. It is clear that many of the challenges we face in education stem from.

Students in our schools come from. Teachers in our schools have not always known what to do. As a society, we. What does it take for teachers to handle this. We must be clear about what teachers have to understand about. We have argued that basic coursework in educational linguistics is. A word that has similar forms in related languages. A language variety in which sounds, grammar, and. A letter combination that signals one sound, e. A language structure longer than a sentence.

Learning outcomes

The smallest unit of a written language, e. A family of related languages thought to have originated. The vocabulary of a language. A term that expresses location. The smallest meaning-bearing language structure, e. Intended effects of a stretch of language, e. The smallest meaning-distinguishing structure of the. Typical organization of words in a particular language. Aitchison, J. Words in the mind: An introduction to the mental. Oxford: Blackwell. August, D. Improving schooling for language. Washington, DC: National.

Boggs, S. The meaning of narratives and questions to Hawaiian. Cazden, V. Hymes Eds. Functions of. New York: Teachers College. California State Department of Education. California State University. Collier, V. A synthesis of studies examining long-term language. Bilingual Research. Journal, 16, How quickly can immigrants. Journal of Educational Issues of. Language Minority Students, 5 , Cummins, J. Age on arrival and immigrant second language. Applied Linguistics, 2 , The role of primary language development in. California State Department of Education, Ed.

Bilingualism and Special Education: Issues in. Assessment and Pedagogy. Clevedon, England: Multilingual Matters. Daniels, P. New York:. Davison, A. On the failure of readability formulas to. Reading Research. Quarterly, 17 , 2, Delpit, L. Ebonics and culturally responsive instruction. Special Ebonics Issue. Volume 12, 1. Fillmore, L.

Language And Development Of Language

The class of Will everyone be. Paper presented at the Alaska State Department of Education,. Instructional language as linguistic input: Second. Wilkinson Ed. Communication in the classroom. New York: Academic Press. In press. Language in education. Rickford Eds. Cambridge: Cambridge. Learning a language from learners.

McConnell-Ginet Eds. Lexington, MA: D. Second language learning in children: A model of. Bialystok, Ed. New York: Cambridge. Gebhard, M. Reconceptualizing classroom second language. Unpublished doctoral. New concepts for new. Heath, S. Ways with words: Language, life, and work in.

Hopstock, P. A review and analysis of estimates. Arlington, VA: Development Associates,. Special Issues Analysis Center. Hoyle, S.